Europe Section European Union The European Union EU is the umbrella organization encompassing the European countries that have eliminated economic, trade, and immigration barriers between the member countries of the union. Originally started as the European Steel and Coal Community in to facilitate economic trade in Western Europe of those commodities, the EU has joined other political organizations and grown into a powerful political and economic entity. In Western Europe only the countries of Iceland, Norway, Lichtenstein, and Switzerland are not part of the EU and even these countries have bilateral agreements with the EU that cover immigration and trade. In practical terms this means that these four countries also seem to be part of the EU to the average traveler.
A peaceful means of some consolidation of European territories used to be provided by dynastic unions ; less common were country-level unions, such as the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth and Austro-Hungarian Empire.
History of the European Coal and Steel Community —57 After two devastating world wars, the political climate favoured an international unity that could preserve peace in Europe effectively.
Hamburgafter a massive Allied bombing in in the picture World War II from to saw a human and economic catastrophe which hit Europe hardest. It demonstrated the horrors of war, and also of extremism, through the Holocaust and the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Once again, there was a desire to ensure it could never happen again, particularly with the war giving the world nuclear weapons.
This left two rival ideologically opposed superpowers. Allied plans for German industry after World War II and its main coal-producing regions were detached SaarlandSilesiaor put under international control Ruhr area. Monnet Plan With statements such as Winston Churchill 's call for a " United States of Europe " becoming louder, the Council of Europe was established in as the first pan-European organisation.
In the year following, on 9 Maythe French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman proposed a community to integrate the coal and steel industries of Europe — these being the two elements necessary to make weapons of war.
On the basis of that speech, France, Italy, the Benelux countries Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg together with West Germany signed the Treaty of Paris creating the European Coal and Steel Community the following year; this took over the role of the International Authority for the Ruhr  and lifted some restrictions on German industrial productivity.
WikiLeaks documents revealed on 8 May  show that at the Bilderberg Group inthere was support for a single European currency i. The Saar was to have been governed by a statute supervised by a European Commissioner reporting to the Council of Ministers of the Western European Union.
After failed attempts at creating defence European Defence Community and political communities European Political Communityleaders met at the Messina Conference and established the Spaak Committee which produced the Spaak report. The report was accepted at the Venice Conference 29 and 30 May where the decision was taken to organise an Intergovernmental Conference.
Three communities[ edit ] Main article: The executives of the new communities were called Commissions, as opposed to the "High Authority". Euratom would integrate sectors in nuclear energy while the EEC would develop a customs union between members.
However, in an agreement was reached to merge the three communities under a single set of institutions, and hence the Merger Treaty was signed in Brussels and came into force on 1 July creating the European Communities.
While the political progress of the Communities was hesitant in the s, this was a fertile period for European legal integration.
Enlargement to Delors[ edit ] Main article: History of the European Communities —93 De Gaulle's veto delayed the first enlargement. After much negotiation, and following a change in the French PresidencyDenmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom with Gibraltar eventually joined the European Communities on 1 January This was the first of several enlargements which became a major policy area of the Union see: Enlargement of the European Union.
InGreenland voted to leave the Community after gaining home rule from Denmark See also: Special member state territories and the European Union. Spain and Portugal joined having applied in on 1 January in the third enlargement.
In the first major revision of the treaties since the Merger Treaty, leaders signed the Single European Act in February The text dealt with institutional reform, including extension of community powers — in particular in regarding foreign policy. It was a major component in completing the single market and came into force on 1 July Germany reunified and the door to enlargement to the former Eastern Bloc was opened See also: The Council proposed Jacques Santer as Commission President but he was seen as a second choice candidate, undermining his position.
Parliament narrowly approved Santer but his commission gained greater support, being approved by votes to Santer had to use his new powers under Maastricht to flex greater control over his choice of Commissioners.
They took office on 23 January The following year, the Schengen Agreement came into force between seven members, expanding to include nearly all others by the end of The European Union is a group of countries that acts as one economic unit in the world economy with one official currency, the euro.
The European Union (EU) is a unification of 27 member states united to create a political and economic community throughout Europe.
Though the idea of the EU might sound simple at the outset, the European Union has a rich history and a unique organization, both of which aid in its current success. Jan 01, · European Union; Beethoven, Ludwig vonThe “Ode to Joy” from Ludwig von Beethoven's Symphony No.
9 is the anthem of the European Union. European Economic CommunityMap showing the composition of the European Economic Community (EEC) from , when it was formed by the members of the European .
The European Union is a geo-political entity covering a large portion of the European continent. It is founded upon numerous treaties and has undergone expansions that have taken it from 6 member states to 28, a majority of the states in Europe.
The primary purpose of the European Union is b) to allow more trades between countries. However, it is important to remember that it encompasses a, c and d as well because movement of peoples and goods is incremental to the European Union and the common currency facilitates this/5(11). The modern European Union traces its origins to economic coalitions formed between Belgium, France, West Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands during the s.
Full market unity, however, did not come into force until with the introduction of the Euro. As European prosperity grew, so did the ambitions of the EU.