Format of a Resume This article suggests some formats that you can follow when preparing your resume along with some principles, which you must keep in mind when preparing such a resume. The key themes in this article are that your resume would have about a half a minute in the hands of the recruiter and hence, it is entirely up to you to represent your candidature in as compelling a manner as possible. This article provides an overview of what a resume is and why do we need a resume while applying for job opportunities.
In the development of an organizational structure, communication channels are an important consideration. The manager in a hierarchical Barriers in downward communication becomes a link in the communication chain. It is the hierarchical system that gives direction to and imposes restrictions upon the flow of communications.
Management decisions and directions flow from higher to lower levels in the organization. Responses and reports from the lower level managers flow upward in the organization. Managers also spend time communicating with their peers. Therefore, we see from the outset that communications must function effectively in a lateral direction, as well as downward and upward.
Committees influence the communication process within an organization. A well-run committee can serve as a supplementary link in the communication chain and provide a means for disseminating information. However, committees often fail to ensure that Managers A and B tell each other what they wish or need to know.
Although they cannot give directions or issue procedures, staff members influence the communication process within an organization. When a staff member is given functional decision prerogatives, he essentially assumes the same status as his superior with respect to such matters.
A multiplicity of encoders, channels, decoders, and feedback mechanisms Barriers in downward communication be used. However, for the information in a message to be processed clearly, quickly, and with a minimum amount of degradation, management must establish clear, formal communication channels.
The sender injects his attitudes and perceptions into the message; determines who should receive it; and the channels through which it should flow, i. The attitudes and perceptions of the recipient, of course, influence the message translation, as well as the feedback he provides.
Peter Drucker, noted exponent of good management practices, says: His tool - the only tool - to do all this is the spoken or written word or the language of numbers. To be effective, a manager must have the ability to listen and to read, and the ability to speak and to write.
Managers need skill in getting their thinking across to other people. The Communication Channels The communication channel selected for transmitting a message plays a significant role in maintaining the quality of the original message in its passage from the sender to receiver. The sender, given the opportunity to weigh the merits of using an oral or written communication, or a combination of the two, selects the most effective for the situation.
Regardless of the communication channel selected, the sender will encounter obstacles. In the previous chapter, the various barriers to effective communication were analyzed.
Considering the possible barriers, the sender must choose the channel which he feels will best guarantee transfer of the essence and meaning of his message without misunderstanding or distortion.
To counteract possible interference in the communication channel, the message should attract attention, contain redundancy, continue repetition, or use a combination of these approaches. A short handwritten message instead of the usual typed message is one method that can attract attention.
The sender should avoid too much redundancy because this tends to clutter the communication channel. To provide repetition, the message must be transmitted through more than one channel, as in spoken and written form, or transmitted more than once through the same channel, as in TV advertising.
There are three channels: The communication within the formal organizational structure that transmits goals, policies, procedures, and directions. The communication outside the formal organizational structure that fills the organizational gaps, maintains the linkages, and handles the one-time situations.
The interpersonal communication within or among the social structure of the organization that serves as the vehicle for casual interpersonal exchanges, and transmittal of unofficial communications. A more detailed examination of each of these communication channels will provide a better understanding of these functions.
Formal Communication Formal communication - written or oral - follows the chain of command of the formal organization; the communication flows from the manager to his immediate subordinates.
Each recipient then re-transmits the message in the selected form to the next lower level of management or to staff members, as appropriate. The message progresses down the chain of command, fanning out along the way, until all who have a need to know are informed.
Formal communication also flows upward through the organization on the same basis.
Formal communication normally encompasses the transmittal of goals, policies, instructions, memoranda, and reports; scheduled meetings; and supervisory-subordinate interviews.
Informal Communication No organization operates in a completely formal or structured environment. Communication between operations depicted in an organizational chart do not function as smoothly or as trouble-free as the chart may imply.
In most organizations operating effectively, channels of communication have developed outside the hierarchical structure.3 1.
Communication importance, process and elements Communication is one of the most basic functions of management, the manager can make a good .
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Jun 30, · There are many barriers to communication that exist in any organization, but some are more pervasive and more common than others. Barriers can . Published: Mon, 5 Dec For any kind of communication to be successful, it is essential that the receiver attributes the same meaning to the message as intended by the sender of the message.
communication, including a telephone call, drop-in visitors, distances between people, walls, and static on the radio. People often take physical barriers for granted, but. Each one of the above strategies has a specific objective. For instance, a concentration strategy seeks to increase the growth of a single product line while a diversification strategy seeks to alter a firm’s strategic track by adding new product lines.